An indigenous tribe of the Yamal-Nenets has thrived in the Siberian Arctic for hundreds of generations, traversing the expansive tundra that makes the Yamal Peninsula. The peninsula forms part of Russia’s vast lands is about the one and have times bigger the size of France. The Tenets live within the defined Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District (YNAO), and comprise of about 10,000 nomads who herd about 300,000 domesticated reindeer in the vast tundra.
Life at the Arctic Circle
Living at the very end of the world, and calling it home by the Nenets is one indeed a manifestation of human ability to adapt and live even in the harshest of conditions. The Nenets live in the Yamal Peninsula, which a vast land extending from the Gulf of Ob to the East, the Baydaratskaya Bay to the West, and from the Northern Siberia, the peat-land extending all the way into the Kara Sea. It is difficult to understand how the Tenets have adapted and been able to live in the remote for thousands of years, vast land that is almost fully covered in permafrost, and blasted by cold winds. The people move their herds from the summer pastures in the north, to the winter pastures located towards the south of Arctic Circle. The tundra vegetation is the only source of food for the reindeer, and as such the timings of the migration and accessibility to the areas where such vegetation is available key to the survival.
They rear the reindeer which apparently is important for the survival and existence in the Arctic. The tundra vegetation is the only source of food for the reindeer, and as such the timings of the migration and accessibility to the areas where such vegetation is available key to the survival. The people move their herds from the summer pastures in the north, to the winter pastures located towards the south of Arctic Circle. The reindeers serve as an important source of food, clothing, and shelter from the hides, transportation and tools of work from their bones. The meat from the animals forms the most important of the Yamal-Nenets’ diet, eaten either raw or cooked. Fresh blood from the slaughtered reindeers provides a rich nutrition of Vitamins. They supplement their diets with salmon, muksun and mountain cranberries, especially in summer when meat cannot be stored.
The Yamal-Nenets wear clothes made from reindeer skin called Malitsa (men) and Yaguskha (women): traditionally woven coats, integrated hood, gloves, with the fur being closes to the skin and the skin on the outside. In the extreme weather, men wear Gus, another layer of reindeer fur which enable them to survive the below 50 degrees temperatures. The leg wear comprise of high hip reindeer boots made up of tobaki and kisy which are worn together.
A typical home
They are typically nomadic and live in chums, temporary huts made of reindeer skin and supported with wooden poles. Every one family has one chum which serve as their living space, and they are pitched on well-chosen grounds depending on quality of the ground, pastures and source of fresh water. They love the Sir-Lankan coffee which they brew and take for warmth and as a stimulant in the extreme environment they exist in. usually, the chums are put up in a crescent shape. Women primarily take up domestic chores: preparing food, sewing and repairing clothing, getting ready household items for migration and taking care of the children. Men graze the reindeer, and involve themselves in choosing pastures, hunting, slaughtering the animals and trading.
Russian is the main language spoken by the Nenets, but they speak Estonian and Finnish amongst themselves. Although modernity has persisted and interfered with their ways, they still maintain strong tundra dialects amongst themselves, with Russian used mostly for communication with outsiders during trading and other necessary interactions
The unique Human-Reindeer Relationship
The reindeer form an important part of the Nenets economically, socially and culturally. Over years, they have people and the herds have formed a unique and mutually beneficial relationship. The reindeer, which were are naturally wild, allowed themselves to be tamed and herded by the Tenets, who provide protection from predators and ensure general well-being as they accompanied them along the ancient migration routes to feeding grounds in the North and South. The Tenets on their side depended on the animals for transport and subsidence. Also, reindeer is considered an important source of income, gained from sawing of the antlers and selling them to ready markets in China as a male potency drug. The reindeers have a significant spiritual importance to the Tenets, taking in consideration the critical role they play in their survival. In the herd a family owns, one reindeer was considered sacred and was not touched as it lived amongst the others until it was too old or unable to walk and live through the tough conditions of the Arctic was it killed. Reindeer also performed an important social function, especially during marriage where it was paid as bride price.
Way of Life interfered with.
The Nenets ancient ways have been interfered with the climatic changes and effects of modernity which has encroached into their migration paths, and heavily compromised their lifestyles. Over years since the days of Stalin’s oppressive regime, the Nenets have endured many challenges, which threaten their very livelihood and existence. There have been colonial intrusions, bringing along civil wars, revolutions and collectivism with other strange and foreign traditions and cultures. Corporations are now rushing to own a piece of the Arctic and exploit the natural resources in the peninsula, especially gas and oil. The Yamal Mega project initiated back in 1990s was projected to drill and pipe gas to Western Europe. The Nenets’ tundra home, once uncontaminated is seriously threatened by industrialization and industrial waste, as they are pushed to the very edge.